Project Management Fundamental and Agile basics


What is a Project 

A project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. 

It typically has a defined beginning and end, with specific objectives to be achieved within constraints such as time, cost, and resources. Projects are often complex and involve various stakeholders, tasks, and activities coordinated to accomplish the desired outcome. They can vary widely in scope, ranging from small-scale initiatives to large, multi-year endeavours. Examples of projects include building construction, software development, organizing events, conducting research studies, and implementing organizational changes. Effective project management involves planning, executing, and controlling these activities to ensure successful completion within the given constraints.

Projects possess several key characteristics that distinguish them from ongoing operational activities. Some of these characteristics include:

  1. Temporary Nature: Projects have a defined beginning and end. Once the project's objectives are met or the project is terminated, it is considered complete.

  2. Unique Deliverables: Projects aim to create a distinct product, service, or result that is different from routine operations. Each project produces something new or different.

  3. Specific Objectives: Projects are undertaken to achieve specific goals and objectives. These objectives provide a clear direction for the project team and stakeholders.

  4. Cross-functional Teams: Projects often involve individuals from different departments, disciplines, or organizations who collaborate to accomplish the project's goals. These diverse teams bring together various expertise and perspectives.

  5. Resource Constraints: Projects are typically executed within constraints such as time, budget, and resources. Managing these constraints effectively is crucial for project success.

  6. Risk and Uncertainty: Projects entail varying degrees of risk and uncertainty, stemming from factors such as changing requirements, technology, market conditions, and unforeseen events. Managing risks is an integral part of project management.

  7. Progressive Elaboration: Projects often evolve over time as more information becomes available or as requirements change. Project plans and deliverables may be refined and adjusted throughout the project lifecycle.

  8. Interdependent Activities: Projects consist of interconnected tasks and activities that must be coordinated and sequenced to achieve the desired outcome. The completion of one task often depends on the successful execution of preceding activities.

  9. Stakeholder Involvement: Projects involve stakeholders who have a vested interest in the project's outcome. Effective communication and engagement with stakeholders are essential for project success.

  10. Governance Structure: Projects typically have a defined governance structure that outlines roles, responsibilities, decision-making processes, and reporting mechanisms. This structure ensures accountability and oversight throughout the project lifecycle.

Understanding these characteristics is essential for effectively managing projects and ensuring their successful completion.

Projects can vary widely in nature, size, and complexity, spanning various industries and sectors. Here are some examples of different types of projects:

  1. Construction Project: Building a new office complex, residential housing development, or infrastructure such as bridges and roads.

  2. Software Development Project: Creating a new mobile application, developing a website, or implementing an enterprise software system.

  3. Event Management Project: Organizing a conference, music festival, or corporate event, including planning logistics, coordinating vendors, and managing attendees.

  4. Marketing Campaign Project: Launching a new product or service, developing advertising materials, and executing promotional activities across various channels.

  5. Research Project: Conducting scientific research studies, market research surveys, or academic research projects to gather data and analyze findings.

  6. Organizational Change Project: Implementing process improvements, restructuring initiatives, or introducing new policies and procedures within an organization.

  7. Infrastructure Upgrade Project: Upgrading IT infrastructure, renovating facilities, or implementing green energy initiatives to improve efficiency and sustainability.

  8. Humanitarian Aid Project: Providing disaster relief, delivering healthcare services, or building schools and infrastructure in underserved communities.

  9. Film Production Project: Producing a movie or television series, including pre-production planning, filming, post-production editing, and distribution.

  10. Community Development Project: Revitalizing urban neighborhoods, constructing public parks, or implementing social programs to support economic development and quality of life.

These examples illustrate the diversity of projects across various domains, each with its unique goals, requirements, and stakeholders. Effective project management is essential for successfully executing these projects, ensuring that objectives are met within the constraints of time, budget, and resources.

Project Constraints 

    Project constraints are limitations or restrictions that can affect the planning, execution, and success of a project. These constraints often have an impact on the project's scope, schedule, budget, and quality. Identifying and understanding these constraints early in the project is crucial for effective project management. Here are some common types of project constraints:

Scope Constraints :

  • Functional Requirements: Limitations on the features or functions that the project must deliver.
  • Technical Requirements: Constraints related to the technology or tools that must be used or avoided.
  • Regulatory Compliance: Legal or regulatory requirements that must be adhered to, which can impact the project scope.

Time Constraints:

  • Deadline: A fixed date by which the project must be completed.
  • Seasonal Factors: Certain projects may be constrained by specific seasons or time-sensitive events.

Cost Constraints:

  • Budgetary Limits: The project must be completed within a predefined budget.
  • Resource Availability: Limitations on the availability of financial, human, or material resources.

Quality Constraints:

  • Quality Standards: The project must adhere to specific quality standards or benchmarks.
  • Compliance Requirements: Constraints related to industry or regulatory quality standards.

 Risk Constraints:

  • Risk Tolerance: Limits on the level of risk the project can undertake.
  • Risk Response Strategies: Constraints imposed by the chosen risk management strategies.      

Human Resource Constraints:

  • Skillsets: Availability of personnel with specific skills required for the project.
  • Team Size: Restrictions on the number of team members or expertise levels.

Communication Constraints:

  • Stakeholder Availability: Limitations on when stakeholders are available for communication.
  • Communication Channels: Constraints related to the methods and tools used for communication.

Environmental Constraints:

  • Physical Environment: Restrictions related to the physical location or conditions where the project is executed.
  • Sustainability Requirements: Constraints related to environmental sustainability goals.
  • Procurement Constraints:
  • Vendor Dependencies: Constraints imposed by dependencies on external vendors or suppliers.
  • Procurement Policies: Restrictions based on organizational procurement policies.
  • Cultural or Social Constraints:
  • Cultural Sensitivity: Constraints related to cultural or social factors that may impact the project.
  • Ethical Considerations: Restrictions based on ethical principles and considerations.
  • Organizational Constraints:
  • Organizational Policies: Restrictions imposed by internal policies and procedures.
  • Legacy Systems: Constraints related to existing systems or infrastructure.

Understanding and managing these constraints is crucial for project managers to make informed decisions, set realistic expectations, and navigate challenges throughout the project lifecycle. Successful project management involves finding a balance among these constraints to deliver a successful project.

Project VS Operations

Projects and operations are two distinct types of work within organizations, each serving different purposes and characteristics:

  1. Projects:

    • Temporary: Projects have a defined beginning and end. They are undertaken to achieve specific goals or objectives and are completed once those objectives are met.
    • Unique: Each project is unique and produces a distinct deliverable, such as a product, service, or result, that is different from routine operations.
    • Cross-functional: Projects often involve teams composed of individuals from different departments or disciplines who collaborate to accomplish the project's goals.
    • Dynamic: Projects typically entail a degree of uncertainty and require flexibility to adapt to changing circumstances and requirements.
    • Managed: Projects are managed using project management methodologies, which involve planning, organizing, executing, and controlling activities to achieve project objectives within constraints.
  2. Operations:

    • Ongoing: Operations are ongoing, repetitive activities that are necessary for the day-to-day functioning of an organization. They do not have a defined end date and continue as long as the organization exists.
    • Repetitive: Operations involve routine tasks and processes that are performed regularly to sustain business operations and deliver products or services to customers.
    • Specialized: Operations are often carried out by specialized departments or teams within an organization, such as production, sales, marketing, finance, and customer service.
    • Stable: Operations are generally stable and predictable, with well-defined processes and procedures in place to ensure consistency and efficiency.
    • Managed: Operations are managed using operations management principles, which focus on optimizing processes, allocating resources, and ensuring smooth day-to-day operations.

While projects and operations are distinct, they are interrelated within organizations. Projects may create deliverables that become part of ongoing operations, such as a new product or service, while operations may provide resources and support for project activities. Effective management of both projects and operations is essential for achieving organizational goals and delivering value to stakeholders.

What is Agile ?

Agile means being flexible and possessing ability to create and respond to change. 

It is a way of dealing with, and ultimately succeeding in, an uncertain and turbulent environment.

Some popular Agile frameworks and methodologies include Scrum, Kanban, Extreme Programming (XP), and Lean Software Development. Each of these frameworks provides a specific set of practices and guidelines for implementing Agile principles effectively. 

Project Complexity Factors

Project complexity is a multidimensional concept, and understanding its various dimensions is crucial for effective project management. Different models and frameworks exist to analyze project complexity, and one common approach involves considering several dimensions. Here are some key dimensions of project complexity:

Technical Complexity:

  • Refers to the level of sophistication of the technology or processes involved in the project.
  • High technical complexity may involve cutting-edge technologies or intricate processes.

Organizational Complexity:

  • Involves the complexity of the organizational structure, including the number of stakeholders, reporting lines, and communication channels.
  • Matrix organizations or those with a high degree of bureaucracy may contribute to organizational complexity.

Size and Scope Complexity:

  • Encompasses the project's size in terms of budget, resources, and duration.
  • Larger projects with extensive scopes tend to be more complex.

Uncertainty and Risk Complexity:

  • Reflects the level of uncertainty and risk associated with the project.
  • Projects operating in dynamic environments with frequent changes and uncertainties are considered more complex.

Interdependency Complexity:

  • Concerns the degree of interdependence between project tasks or components.
  • Projects with highly interdependent tasks may face challenges in coordinating activities.

Human and Social Complexity:

  • Involves the complexity of human factors, team dynamics, and stakeholder management.
  • Projects with diverse teams, cultural differences, or challenging stakeholder relationships may experience higher human and social complexity.

Time Complexity:

  • Relates to the constraints and pressure associated with project timelines.
  • Projects with tight deadlines or those requiring rapid development may be more time complex.

Regulatory and Compliance Complexity:

  • Addresses the complexity introduced by adherence to regulations, standards, and compliance requirements.
  • Industries with stringent regulatory environments may face higher regulatory complexity.

Geographical Complexity:

  • Refers to the geographical dispersion of project teams, resources, or stakeholders.
  • Projects with teams located in different regions or countries may experience additional complexity.

Environmental and Sustainability Complexity:

  • Focuses on the environmental impact and sustainability considerations associated with the project.
  • Projects with a strong emphasis on eco-friendly practices or sustainability goals may have increased complexity in this dimension.

Understanding and analyzing these dimensions help project managers tailor their approaches, strategies, and resources to effectively navigate and address the specific challenges posed by each dimension of project complexity.

The Stacey Complexity Model

The Stacey Complexity Model, developed by Ralph D. Stacey, is a framework that helps in understanding and managing complexity in projects. It emphasizes the relationship between the level of certainty in a project's requirements and the appropriate management approach. The model categorizes projects into four domains based on two dimensions: requirements and solutions.

Simple (Clear):

  • In the simple domain, both the requirements and the solutions are well-understood and clear.
  • Management Approach: This domain is conducive to a traditional, command-and-control management style. Standard project management methodologies work well in simple projects.

Complicated (Knowable):

  • In the complicated domain, the requirements are clear, but the solutions are not immediately evident.
  • Management Approach: Analytical and expert-based approaches are suitable. Experts may be consulted, and a systematic analysis is required to determine the best solution. This involves a more collaborative approach compared to simple projects.

Complex (Unknowable):

  • In the complex domain, both the requirements and the solutions are unclear and continuously evolving.

  • Management Approach: A more adaptive and experimental approach is needed. This involves collaboration, experimentation, and continuous learning. Instead of predicting and controlling, the emphasis is on sensing and responding to changes.

Chaotic (Unpredictable):

  • In the chaotic domain, neither the requirements nor the solutions are clear, and the situation is rapidly changing.
  • Management Approach: During chaos, there is no standard approach. Immediate action is required to stabilize the situation, followed by a transition to a more controlled state. Once stability is achieved, the project may move into the complex domain for ongoing management.

It's important to note that projects may transition between these domains as they progress. The model highlights the need for different management approaches in different situations and encourages flexibility and adaptability in project management strategies. The Stacey Complexity Model is particularly useful for guiding project managers in selecting appropriate methodologies based on the level of certainty or uncertainty in a given project.

Progressive Elaboration

Cone of Uncertainty

The "cone of uncertainty" is a concept used in project management, particularly in software development and other fields where uncertainty plays a significant role. It was first introduced by Barry Boehm in the 1980s.

The cone of uncertainty illustrates the idea that as a project progresses, the level of uncertainty about its outcomes decreases. Initially, when a project starts, there is a wide range of potential outcomes, and uncertainty about factors such as requirements, scope, resources, and timelines is high. As the project progresses and more information becomes available, this uncertainty gradually decreases, and the range of possible outcomes narrows.

The cone of uncertainty visually represents this decreasing uncertainty over time. It typically takes the shape of a cone, with the widest part at the beginning of the project and the narrowest part at the end. The cone symbolizes that as the project progresses, the range of possible outcomes becomes narrower, leading to more accurate estimates and better-informed decision-making.

Understanding the cone of uncertainty is important for project managers and teams because it highlights the need to continually gather information, refine estimates, and adapt plans as the project progresses. It emphasizes the iterative nature of project management and the importance of managing and reducing uncertainty to improve project outcomes.

Progressive elaboration is a project management concept that involves continuously refining and expanding upon project details and plans as more information becomes available. It recognizes that at the beginning of a project, information may be limited, and it may not be possible to define all aspects of the project in detail. However, as the project progresses and more data becomes available, project managers can add more details and refine the project plan.

Key aspects of progressive elaboration include:

  1. Initial Planning: At the initiation of a project, the team may not have all the information needed to plan every aspect in detail. Instead, they create an initial plan based on the available information.

  2. Iterative Process: Progressive elaboration involves an iterative and ongoing process. As more information becomes available or as the project advances, the project plan is revisited, refined, and expanded.

  3. Flexibility: This approach allows for flexibility in adapting to changes, uncertainties, and unexpected developments. It recognizes that project details may need to be adjusted as the project unfolds.

  4. Continuous Refinement: The project plan is not static but evolves over time. Project managers and teams continually refine and update the plan, incorporating new insights and information.

  5. Detailed Planning: As the project progresses and more information becomes known, the project plan can be developed with greater detail. This detailed planning may include specific tasks, resource allocations, and timelines.

Rolling wave planning is a project management technique that involves planning and executing a project in iterative cycles. Instead of planning the entire project in detail upfront, rolling wave planning focuses on creating detailed plans for the near-term activities while leaving the planning for future phases at a higher level of abstraction. As the project progresses and more information becomes available, the planning for subsequent phases is elaborated upon in more detail.

Key aspects of rolling wave planning include:

  1. Incremental Planning: The project is divided into phases or iterations, with detailed planning performed for the immediate phase or iteration. Planning for future phases is kept at a higher level, allowing for flexibility and adaptation as the project unfolds.

  2. Progressive Elaboration: Detailed planning is deferred until it is needed, allowing for adjustments based on evolving project requirements, stakeholder feedback, and changing circumstances.

  3. Risk Management: Rolling wave planning enables project teams to identify and address risks early in the project lifecycle. By focusing on detailed planning for the near-term activities, risks and uncertainties can be better understood and mitigated.

  4. Adaptability: The approach allows for greater adaptability to changes in project scope, requirements, and priorities. Project plans can be adjusted and refined based on new information and feedback received during the execution of the project.

  5. Efficient Resource Allocation: Rolling wave planning enables more efficient allocation of resources by focusing detailed planning efforts on the most immediate activities. This helps prevent resources from being allocated prematurely to activities that may change or be eliminated as the project progresses.

  6. Improved Decision Making: By deferring detailed planning until it is necessary, project teams can make more informed decisions based on current information and a clearer understanding of project requirements and constraints.

Rolling wave planning is particularly beneficial for projects with high levels of uncertainty, complexity, or evolving requirements. It allows project teams to maintain flexibility and responsiveness throughout the project lifecycle while ensuring that detailed planning efforts are focused where they are most needed.

Project Methodologies, Methods, and Practices

The best approach to manage a project depends on the resources, timelines, stakeholders, industry, the project work, complexity and many other factors. Every project and situation requires its own assessment of what is best. At a macro level, here are the three major methods of project management.


A more modern approach wherein the team works collaboratively with the customer to determine the project needs, quickly building outputs based on those assumptions, getting feedback, and continuing forward or adapting as much as needed. The coordination of the customer and the team drives the project forward. The aim is to deliver value by regularly confirming and incorporating input.

Predictive / Plan Driven

More relevant for simple projects where requirement and technology uncertainty is less, A more traditional approach wherein as much as possible, the project needs, requirements, and constraints are understood, and plans are developed accordingly. Those plans drive the project forward. The more well planned out, the more predictive and controlled the project is.


A hybrid approach to project management combines elements from different project management methodologies to create a customized approach that best fits the unique needs of a specific project or organization. Incorporates components of both Agile and predictive  approaches. This may be done by utilizing a particular strategy or technique for a certain need. This may also be accomplished by blending the various approaches concurrently on the project. Or the project may switch approaches based on need, changing work requirements, or circumstances.


Types of Life Cycles

There are two major types of project life cycles : predictive and adaptive. The adaptive life cycle includes Iterative, Incremental, and

Agile. All of these life cycle types are explained below.

Predictive Life Cycles

A predictive life cycle  is  a project life cycle in which the project scope, time, and cost are determined in the early phases of the life cycle. In other words, in a predictive life cycle, you determine project scope, time, and cost as early in the project as possible. This is a preferred cycle to use when project outcomes are well understood and known, such as enhancements to an established product. Predictive cycles are formal and enable the project team to stay focused on each phase of the project before having to move forward into the next phase.

Iterative Life Cycles

Iterative life cycles are a type of project life cycle where the project is executed in small, repetitive cycles or iterations. Each iteration represents a portion of the overall project, and through successive iterations, the project evolves and is refined. This approach contrasts with traditional linear life cycles, such as the Waterfall model, where each phase of the project is completed before moving on to the next.  Key characteristics of iterative life cycles include:

Repetitive Cycles:

  • The project is broken down into a series of iterations or cycles.
  • Each iteration goes through the phases of planning, executing, and evaluating.

Incremental Progress:

  • Incremental progress is made with each iteration.
  • At the end of each cycle, there is a deliverable, which may be an increment of the final product.

Flexible and Adaptive:

  • Iterative approaches are flexible and adaptive to changes.
  • Changes can be incorporated at the beginning of each iteration based on feedback and lessons learned.

Continuous Improvement:

  • Learning from each iteration is applied to improve subsequent cycles.
  • The project team incorporates feedback and adjusts plans for the next iteration.

Client Involvement:

  • Stakeholder or client involvement is encouraged throughout the process.
  • Regular feedback from stakeholders helps in refining requirements and ensuring alignment with expectations.

Risk Management:

  • Risks are addressed and managed at the end of each iteration.
  • The iterative approach allows for early identification and mitigation of risks.

Popular iterative methodologies and framework include:

  • Scrum: An agile framework that uses short, time-boxed iterations called sprints..
  • Extreme Programming (XP): Emphasizes frequent releases in short development cycles.

Iterative life cycles are especially beneficial in projects where requirements are subject to change, and flexibility and adaptability are crucial for success. They are well-suited for software development, product development, and projects with evolving or unclear requirements.

Incremental Life Cycles

The incremental project lifecycle is a project management approach where the project is divided into small, manageable parts called increments. Each increment represents a portion of the overall project and is developed and delivered separately. This approach allows for the delivery of functional components or features in a phased manner, with each increment building upon the previous one. Incremental development is often used in software development and other project types where the requirements may evolve over time or where there is a need for early delivery of some functionality. The incremental project lifecycle is particularly beneficial in projects where early delivery of usable functionality is essential or where requirements are subject to change. It allows for a more adaptive and responsive approach to project development.

Agile Life Cycle

Agile life cycles is an  iterative and incremental approach also, referred to as change-driven or adaptive. They work well in environments with high levels of change and ongoing stakeholder involvement in a project. This is similar to iterative and incremental life cycles, but at a much more rapid pace. It is used in a highly flexible, interactive, adaptive organization where project outcomes are realized while the project work is being completed, and not at the beginning of the project. This method is used when dealing with a rapidly changing environment, scope and requirements are difficult to define in advance, and small incremental deliverables have value to stakeholders.

Below are some key characteristics of Agile Methodology.

Key Characteristics of the Agile Lifecycle:

  • Iterative and Incremental: The project is delivered in small, manageable increments with the flexibility to adapt to changes.
  • Continuous Feedback: Regular communication and collaboration among team members, stakeholders, and customers.
  • Prioritization: Features are prioritized based on customer value, allowing the most important ones to be addressed first.
  • Flexibility: Able to respond to changing requirements and priorities throughout the project.
  • Continuous Improvement: Regular reflection and adaptation to improve processes and outcomes.

It's important to note that the specifics of the Agile lifecycle may vary depending on the chosen Agile framework or methodology (e.g., Scrum, Kanban) and the unique requirements of the project or organization.

Hybrid Methodologies

A hybrid project management approach combines elements from different project management methodologies to create a customized solution that best suits the unique needs of a specific project or organization.

Many organizations are using hybrid methodologies and approaches, which combine some elements from both predictive (waterfall) and adaptive (agile) approaches. In these combined approaches, the organizations are still using shorter delivery time frames, iterative product releases, and involving stakeholders regularly, but they tend to do more in-depth planning and requirements gathering up front. As a project manager, you must help the sponsor and team decide which approach is the best match for your business objectives.

When adopting a hybrid approach, it's crucial to carefully assess the project's requirements, complexity, and the organization's culture. Tailoring the approach to the specific needs of the project ensures that the strengths of each methodology are leveraged appropriately. Effective communication, collaboration, and a willingness to adapt are key components of successful hybrid project management. 

Project Manager's Skill Set and PMI Talent Triangle

The PMI Talent Triangle® reflects the skills needed by today's project professionals and changemakers as they navigate the evolving world of project management. ​

Ways of Working 

Mastering diverse and creative ways (predictive, adaptive, design thinking) to get any job done

Power Skills

The critical interpersonal skills required to apply influence, inspire change and build relationships

Business Acumen

Effective decision-making and understanding of how projects align with the big picture of broader organizational strategy and global trends

Project Management Principles Guidance for All Project Practitioners

  1. Be a diligent, respectful and caring steward 
  2. Recognize, evaluate and respond to system interactions 
  3. Navigate complexity 
  4. Create a collaborative project team environment 
  5. Demonstrate leadership behaviors 
  6. .Optimize risk responses 
  7. Effectively engage with stakeholders 
  8. Tailor based on context 
  9. Embrace adaptability and resiliency 
  10. Focus on value 
  11. Build quality into processes and deliverables 
  12. Enable change to achieve the envisioned future state